Our Founder - Dr. Bruce Bugbee

Dr. Bruce Bugbee founded Apogee Instruments, Inc. in 1996 as a side venture to his career as a professor and researcher at Utah State University in Logan, Utah where he still teaches today. Research and development, as well as production, of Apogee's earliest sensors occurred at his kitchen table and then moved into his garage. Since then, Apogee has grown into a world-class manufacturer of environmental sensors with dozens of employees, a state-of-the-art headquarters and manufacturing facility, and over 100,000 products in the field.

Bruce has always been a scientist first and businessman second. One of the keys to Apogee's success has been his personal passion for creating top-quality, cost-effective instrumentation for scientists that meet his own rigorous performance standards in the field and the lab.

Under Bruce's leadership, the R&D team at Apogee Instruments has set new benchmarks for instrument performance, while focusing on reduced costs through elegant design and innovative manufacturing techniques. The result is a product line that leads in both quality and price and is now a brand of choice for scientists around the world.

Dr. Bruce Bugbee

Curriculum Vitae of Bruce Bugbee

Professor of Crop Physiology Utah State University
President of Apogee Instruments, Inc.

  • B.S. University of Minnesota
  • M.S. University of California, Davis
  • Ph.D. Penn State University

  • Assistant Professor, Plant Science Dept., Utah State Univ.
  • Associate Professor, Plants, Soils, & Biometeorology Dept.
  • Professor, Plants, Soils, & Climate Dept.

  • 2020 Fellow American Soc. for Horticultural Science
  • 2018 Fellow American Society of Agronomy
  • 2017 Distinguished Alumni Penn State University
  • 2016 D. Wynne Thorne Career Research Award Utah State University
  • 2015 Distinguished Professor College of Agriculture
  • 2012 Governor’s Medal for Science State of Utah
  • 2005 Researcher of the Year College of Agriculture
  • 2001 Outstanding Graduate Mentor Utah State University
  • 2001 Top Professor Award Utah State University

National Committee Appointments and Positions
  • Elected Chair, Biophysical sensors and measurements community, Am. Soc. Agronomy (2014-2015)
  • Elected chairman of the Crop Physiology division, American Soc. of Agronomy (2003-2004)
  • Invited to participate in a comprehensive 2-year review NASA Life Sciences research for the National Research Council (1996-97).  This resulted in co-editing a book, “Advanced Technology for Human Life Support in Space” published by the NRC.
  • Invited to serve on the American Association of Biological Sciences Advisory panel to review research proposals (3 invitations: 1992; 2001; 2008).
  • Nominated for National Science Foundation "Presidential Young Investigator Award" 1987.

Professional Service
  • Reviewed 42 manuscripts and 28 proposals in the past 10 years (2010-2020) for the Agronomy, Horticulture, Plant Physiology, and other journals and Federal agencies.

Invited Book Chapters
  • Kusuma, P., P.M. Pattison & B. Bugbee. (2021). Photon efficacy in horticulture. Turning LEDs packages into LED luminaires for indoor farming. In: Plant factory: basics, applications and advanced research, Eds. T. Kozai, G. Niu & J. Masabni. Elsevier
  • Blonquist, M. and B. Bugbee. 2018. Instruments and approaches for accurate measurement of air temperature. In: J. Hatfield (ed). Agroclimatology. Am. Soc. of Agronomy publication. Madison, WI.
  • Blonquist, M. and B. Bugbee. 2018. Solar, Net, and Photosynthetic radiation. In: J. Hatfield (ed). Agroclimatology. Am. Soc. of Agronomy publication. Madison, WI. 
  • Bugbee, B. 2017. Economics of LED lighting. In: S.D. Gupta (ed.). Light emitting diodes for agriculture. Smart lighting. p. 81-99. Springer Verlag, Singapore. (ISBN 978-981-10-5807-3) doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5807-3_4
  • Fisher, P. Both, A. J. and B. Bugbee. 2017. Supplemental Lighting Technology, Costs and Efficiency. Chapter 8. In: P. Fisher and E. Runkle (eds). Lighting Up Profits: Understanding Greenhouse Lighting. Ball Red Book. Meister Publishing.
  • Bugbee, B. 2011. Effect of Environment on Ethylene Stress and Cotton. Chapter 5. In: Derrick M. Oosterhuis, (ed.). Stress Physiology in Cotton. The Cotton Foundation reference book series, Cordova TN.
  • Doucette, W., E. Dettenmaier, B. Bugbee and D. Mackay . 2010. Mass Transport from Soil to Plants. In: L. Thibodeaux and D. Mackay (eds.). Handbook of Chemical Mass Transport in the Environment. CRC Press.
  • Klassen, S. and B. Bugbee. 2005. Shortwave radiation. Chapter 3. pages 43-58 In: Micrometeorology in Agriculture Systems. Am. Soc. of Agronomy monograph no. 47. Madison, WI.
  • Bugbee, B. 2004. Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture. In: Proceedings of the South Pacific Soilless Culture Conference. M. Nichols (ed.) Acta Hort 648: 99-112.
  • Klassen, S.P., G. Ritchie, J. M. Frantz, D. Pinnock, and B. Bugbee. 2003. Real time Imaging of Ground Cover: Relationships with Radiation Capture, Canopy Photosynthesis, and Daily Growth rate. Chapter 1: Pages 3 - 14. In: Digital Imaging and Spectral Techniques: Applications to Precision Agriculture and Crop Physiology. Am. Soc. Agronomy special publication No. 66. Madison, WI.
  • Doucette, W.J., B. Bugbee, S.C. Smith, C.J. Pajak, and J.S. Ginn. 2003. Uptake, Metabolism, and Phytovolatilization of TCE by Indigenous Vegetation. In: McCutcheon, S. and J. Schnoor. (eds). Phytoremediation: Transformation and Control of Contaminants. John Wiley and Sons, NY.
  • Bugbee, B. 1996. Growth Analysis and Yield Components. In: F.B. Salisbury (ed.). Units, Symbols, and Terminology for Plant Physiology. Oxford University Press. Bugbee, B. 1994. Effects of Radiation Quality, Intensity, and Duration on Photosynthesis and Growth. p. 39-50. In: International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop. T. Tibbitts ed. NASA Tech Proceeding No. NASA-CP-95-3309. Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899.
  • Bugbee, B. 1994. Effects of Radiation Quality, Intensity, and Duration on Photosynthesis and Growth. p. 39-50. In: International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop. T. Tibbitts ed. NASA Tech Proceeding No. NASA-CP-95-3309. Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899.
  • Bugbee, B. and F.B. Salisbury. 1989. Controlled Environ¬ment Crop Production: Hydroponics versus Lunar Regolith. p. 107-129. In: D. Henninger and D. Ming (eds.) Lunar Agriculture. Am. Soc. of Agronomy.
  • Salisbury, F.B. and B. Bugbee. 1985. Wheat Farming in a Lunar Base. In: Michael B. Duke and Wendell W. Mendell (eds.) Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. Lunar and Planetary In¬stitute, 3303 NASA Road One, Houston, Texas 77048.

Books Edited
  • Advances in Space Research. 1992. Life Sciences and Space Research: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems. R. MacElroy, M. Averner, T. Tibbitts, B. Bugbee, G. Horneck, and E. Dunlop (eds). Pergamon Press, NY.


Publications in Refereed Journals

(Google Scholar h-index: 49; i10-index 108)

  • Kusuma, P. and B. Bugbee. 2020. Far-red Fraction: An Improved Metric for Characterizing Phytochrome Effects on Morphology. Jour. Am Soc Hort Sci. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS05002-20
  • Zhen, S. and B. Bugbee. 2020. Substituting far-red for traditionally defined photosynthetic photons results in equal canopy quantum yield for CO2 fixation and increased photon capture during long-term studies: Implications for re-defining PAR. Frontiers in Plant Science. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.581156
  • Kusuma, P., M. Pattison, and B. Bugbee. 2020. From physics to fixtures to food: Current and potential LED efficacy. Nature-Horticulture Research 7:56.https://doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0283-7
  • Zhen, S. and B. Bugbee. 2020. Far-red photons have equivalent efficiency to traditional photosynthetic photons: implications for re-defining photosynthetically active radiation. Plant Cell and Environment.  https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.13730
  • Stott, L., B. Black and B. Bugbee 2020. Quantifying Tree Hydration using Electromagnetic Sensors. Horticulturae 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae6010002
  • Waldron, B, J. Sagers, M. Peel, C. Rigby, B. Bugbee. 2020. Salinity Reduces the Forage Quality of Forage Kochia: A Halophytic Chenopodiaceae Shrub. Rangleland Ecology and management. 73:384-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rama.2019.12.005
  • Stott, L., B. Black and B. Bugbee. 2019. Differences in Drought Tolerance among Gisela® Cherry Rootstocks Determined using Automated Weighing Lysimeters. HortScience 54(10): 1847-1852 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI14267-19
  • Wheeler, W., B. Black, R. Watslusky, G. Cardon, and B. Bugbee. 2019. Drought Tolerance of Navajo and Lovell Peach Trees: Precision Water Stress Using Automated Weighing Lysimeters. HortScience 54(5): 799-803. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI13806-18
  • Soundararajan, M., R. Ledbetter, P Kusuma, S Zhen, P Ludden, B Bugbee, S. Ensign and L Seefeldt. 2019. Phototrophic N2 and CO2 Fixation Using a Rhodopseudomonas palustris-H2 Mediated Electrochemical System with Infrared Photons. Front. Microbiol. 10:1817 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01817
  • Monje, O. and B. Bugbee. 2019. Radiometric Method for Determining Canopy Stomatal Conductance. Agronomy. 9(3): 114. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9030114
  • Pattison, M., J. Tsao, G. Brainard & B. Bugbee. 2018. LEDs for photons physiology and food. Nature 563: 493-500. DOI:org/10.1038/s41586-018-0706-x 
  • Tibbitts, S. and B. Bugbee, P. Francescatto, T. Robinson, B. Black. 2018. Effect of scion and graft type on transpiration, hydraulic resistance and xylem hormone profile of apples grafted on Geneva®41 and M.9-NICTM29 rootstocks.  Scientia Horticulturae 227:213-222 DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2017.09.052
  • Sagers, J., Waldron, B. E. Creech, I. Mott, and B. Bugbee. 2017. Salinity tolerance of three competing rangeland plant species: Studies in hydroponic culture. Ecology and Evolution. 7 (24): 10916–10929.  DOI:10.1002/ece3.3607
  • Parry, C. and B. Bugbee. 2017. Reduced Root-zone Phosphorous concentration Decreases Iron Chlorosis in Maize in Soilless substrates. HortTechnology. 27(4) 490-493. Doi:10.21273/HORTTECH03735-17. 
  • Both, AJ, B. Bugbee, C Kubota, R Lopez, C Mitchell, E Runkle and C Wallace. 2017. Proposed Product Label for Electric Lamps Used in Plant Sciences. HortTechnology 27: 544-549. doi: 10.21273/HORTTECH03648-16
  • Snowden, C., K. Cope, and B. Bugbee. 2016. Sensitivity of seven diverse species to blue and green light: Interactions with photon flux. PLoS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163121
  • Morris, K.A., J. M. Stark, B. Bugbee, J. M. Norton. 2016. The invasive annual cheatgrass releases more nitrogen than crested wheatgrass through root exudation and senescence. Oecologia. DOI 10.1007/s00442-015-3544-7.
  • Bugbee B. 2016. Toward an optimal spectral quality for plant growth and development: The importance of radiation capture. Acta Hortic. 1134, 1-12. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1134.1
  • Blonquist, M. and B. Bugbee. 2015. The challenges of measuring net radiation. Meteorological Technology International. Sept. p. 100-102.
  • Nelson, J. and B. Bugbee. 2015. Analysis of Environmental Effects on Leaf Temperature under Sunlight, High Pressure Sodium and Light Emitting Diodes. PLoSOne. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138930
  • Blonquist, M. and B. Bugbee. 2014. Active or Passive: The challenge of accurately measuring air temperature. Meteorological Technology International. Aug. p. 78-82.
  • Nelson, J. and B. Bugbee. 2014. Economic Analysis of Greenhouse Lighting: Light Emitting Diodes vs. High Intensity Discharge Fixtures. PLoSOne. Vol 9:6 10pp. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099010
  • Parry, C., M. Blonquist, and B. Bugbee. 2014. In situ measurement of leaf chlorophyll concentration: Analysis of the optical/absolute relationship. Plant Cell and Environ. 37(11): 2508–2520. DOI: 10.1111/pce.12324
  • Adams, C. and B. Bugbee. 2014. Nitrogen retention and partitioning at the initiation of lipid accumulation in nitrogen-deficient algae.  Jour. Phycology. In press. DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12167
  • Cope, K, M. Chase Snowden, and B. Bugbee. 2014.  Photobiological Interactions of Blue Light and Photosynthetic Photon Flux: Effects of Monochromatic and Broad-Spectrum Light Sources.  Photochemistry and Photobiology. In press. DOI: 10.1111/php.12233
  • Adams, C., Jacobson, A. Bugbee, B. 2013. Ceramic aggregate sorption and desorption chemistry: Implications for use as a component of soilless media. Journal of Plant Nutrition.  In press. DOI:  10.1080/01904167.2013.837921
  • Adams, C. and B. Bugbee. 2013. Enhancing lipid production of the marine diatom Chaetoceros5 gracilis: synergistic interactions of sodium chloride and silicon.  J Appl Phycol.  In press. DOI 10.1007/s10811-013-0156-7.
  • Doucette, W., H. Klein, J. Chard, R. Dupont, B. Bugbee, W. Plaehn.  2013. Volatilization of Trichloroethylene from Trees and Soil: Measurement and Scaling Approaches. Environ. Sci. and Technology. 47(11):5813–5820. DOI 10.1021/es304115c
  • Cope, K, and B. Bugbee. 2013.  Spectral Effects of Three Types of White Light-Emitting Diodes on Plant Growth and Development: Absolute versus Relative Amounts of Blue Light.  HortScience. 48(4):504–509.
  • Adams, C., Jacobson, A. Bugbee, B. 2013. Ceramic aggregate sorption and desorption chemistry: Implications for use as a component of soilless media. Journal of Plant Nutrition. In Press.
  • Romagnano, J. and B. Bugbee. 2013.  Light level does not alter ethylene sensitivity in radish or pea.  Jour. Plant Growth Regulation.  71:67-75. DOI 10.1007/s10725-013-9810-y
  • Adams, C., Frantz, J., Bugbee, B. 2013. Macro- and micronutrient-release characteristics of three polymer-coated fertilizers: Theory and Measurements. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 176. 76-88.
  • Adams, C., Godfrey, V., Wahlen , B., Seefeldt, L., Bugbee, B.  2012. Understanding precision nitrogen stress to optimize the growth and lipid content tradeoff in oleaginous green microalgae. Bioresource Technology. 131: 188-194.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.12.143
  • Wahlen, B., M. Morgan, A. McCurdy, R. Willis, M. Morgan, D. Dye, B. Bugbee, B. Wood, and L. Seefeldt. 2012. Biodiesel from Microalgae, Yeast, and Bacteria: Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions.  Energy & Fuels.  27: 220-228.  DOI: 10.1021/ef3012382
  • Stoklosa A. Weiss I, and B. Bugbee. 2011. Composition and Functional Properties of Apogee and Perigee Wheat compared to common terrestrial wheat cultivars. International Journal of Food Properties. 14(5) 996-1006.
  • Slavens, M., P. Johnson, and B. Bugbee. 2011. Irrigation frequency differentially alters vegetative growth and seed-head development of Poa annua biotypes. Crop Sci 51:1-9.
  • Johnson, I., J. Thornley, J. Frantz, and B. Bugbee. 2010. A model of canopy photosynthesis incorporating protein distribution through the canopy and its acclimation to light, temperature and CO2. Annals of Botany 106:735-749.
  • Blonquist, M., R. Allen, and B. Bugbee. 2010. An Evaluation of the Net Radiation Sub-model in the ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation: Implications for Evapotranspiration Prediction. Ag. Water Management. 97:1026-1038.
  • Blonquist, M., J. Norman, and B. Bugbee. 2009. Automated measurement of canopy stomatal conductance based on infra-red temperature. Ag. and Forest Meteorology 149:1931-1945.
  • Jones, S. B. Bugbee, R Heinse, D. Or, and G Bingham. 2009. Porous plant growth media Design considerations for lunar and Martian habitats. SAE International paper no. 2009- 01-2361.
  • Blonquist, M., B. Tanner, and B. Bugbee 2009. Evaluation of measurement accuracy and Comparison of Two New and Three Traditional Net Radiometers. Ag. and Forest Meteorology149:1709-1721.
  • Dettenmaier, E, W. Doucette, B. Bugbee. 2009. Chemical Hydrophobicity and Uptake by Plant Roots. Environmental Sci. and Technology 43:324-329.
  • Chen, D. M. Liang, D. DeWald, B. Weimer, M. Peel, B. Bugbee, J. Michaelson, E. Davis, Y. Wu. 2008. Identification of dehydration responsive genes from two non-nodulated alfalfa cultivars using Medicago truncatula microarrays. Acta Physiol. Plant 30:183-189.
  • Frantz, J., N. Cometti, M. van Iersel, and B. Bugbee. 2007. Rethinking Acclimation of Growth and Maintenance Respiration of Tomato in Elevated CO2: Effects of a Sudden Change in Light at Different Temperatures. Jour. Plant Ecology 31 (4)100-110.
  • Henry, A., W. Doucette, J. Norton, and B. Bugbee. 2007. Changes in Crested Wheatgrass Root Exudation caused by Flood, Drought, and Nutrient Stress. Jour. Environmental Quality 36:904-912.
  • Chard, B., W. Doucette, J, Chard, and B. Bugbee. 2006. Trichloroethylene Uptake by Apple and Peach Trees and Transfer to Fruit. Environ. Sci. and Technology 40(15):4788-4793.
  • Henry, A., W. Doucette, J. Norton, S. Jones, J. Chard, and B. Bugbee. 2006. Design and Maintenance of an Axenic Plant Culture system to Facilitate Optimal growth in Long- term studies. Jour. Environmental Quality 35(2):590-598.
  • Frantz, J. and B. Bugbee. 2005. Acclimation of Plant Populations to Shade: Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Carbon Use Efficiency. Jour. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 130(6):918-927.
  • Doucette, W. B. Wheeler, J. Chard, B. Bugbee, C. Naylor, J. Carbone, and R. Sims. 2005. Uptake of Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates by Crested Wheatgrass. Environ. Toxicology and Chemistry 24:2965-2972.
  • Klassen, S. and B. Bugbee. 2004. Ethylene Synthesis and Sensitivity in Crop Plants. HortScience 39:1546-1552.
  • Frantz, J., D. Pinnock, S. Klassen, and B. Bugbee. 2004. Characterizing the Environmental Response of a Gibberellic Acid Deficient Rice for Use as a Model Crop. Agronomy Jour. 96:1172-1181.
  • Dougher, T. and B. Bugbee. 2004. Long-term Blue Light Effects on the Histology of Lettuce and Soybean Leaves and Stems. Jour. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 129:467-472.
  • Frantz, J., N. Cometti, and B. Bugbee. 2004. Night Temperature has a Minimal Effect on Respiration and Growth in rapidly Growing Plants. Ann. Botany 94:155-166.
  • Frantz, J., G. Ritchie, N. Cometti, J. Robinson, and B. Bugbee. 2004. Exploring the Limits of Crop Productivity: Beyond the limits of tipburn in lettuce. Jour. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 129:331-338..
  • Mackowiak, C., P. Grossl, and B. Bugbee. 2003. Biogeochemistry of Fluoride in a Plant-solution system. Jour. of Environmental Quality 32:2230-2238.
  • Drysdale, A. and B. Bugbee. 2003. Optimizing a Plant Habitat for Space: A Novel Approach to Plant Growth on the Moon. Int. Conf. Environ. Systems 2003-01-2360.
  • Klassen, S. and B. Bugbee. 2002. Sensitivity of Wheat and Rice to Low Levels of Atmospheric Ethylene. Crop Sci. 42:746-753.
  • Frantz, J. and B. Bugbee. 2002. Anaerobic Conditions Improve Germination of a Gibberellic Acid Deficient Rice. Crop Sci. 42:651-654.
  • Mackowiak, C., P. Grossl, and B. Bugbee. 2001. Beneficial effects of humic acid on micronutrient availability to wheat. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 65:1744-1750.
  • Campbell, W., F. Salisbury, B. Bugbee, S. Klassen, E. Nagle, D. Strickland, G. Bingham, M Levinskikh, G. Iljina, T. Veselova, V. Sytchev, I. Podolsky, W. McManus, D. Bubenheim, J. Stieber, and G. Jahns. 2001. Comparative floral development of Mir-grown and ethylene treated Earth-grown Super Dwarf wheat. Jour. Plant Physiol. 158:1051-1060.
  • Dougher, T. and B. Bugbee. 2001. Differences in the response of Wheat, Soybean, and Lettuce to reduced blue radiation. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 73:199-207.
  • Dougher, T. and B. Bugbee. 2001. Evidence for yellow light suppression of lettuce growth. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 73:208-212.
  • Van Iersel, M. and B. Bugbee. 2000. A multiple chamber, semi-continuous, crop carbon dioxide exchange system: Design, calibration, and data interpretation. Jour. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125:86-92.
  • Orchard, B.J., W.J. Doucette, J.K. Chard and B. Bugbee. 2000a. A Novel Laboratory System for Determining the Fate of Trichloroethylene in Plants. Environ. Tox. Chem. 19:888-894.
  • Orchard, B.J., W.J. Doucette, J.K. Chard and B. Bugbee. 2000b. Uptake of Trichloroethylene by Hybrid Poplar Trees Grown Hydroponically in High Rate, Flow-through Plant Growth Chambers. Environ. Tox. Chem. 19:895-903.
  • J. Cavazzoni, T. Volk, B. Bugbee, and T. Dougher. 2000. Phasic Temperature and Photoperiod Control for Soybean using a Modified Crop Gro Model. Life Supp. Biosphere Sci. 6:273-278.
  • Bugbee, B. 1999. Engineering Plants for Spaceflight Environments. American Soc. for Gravitational and Space Biology Bulletin. 12:67-74.
  • Stahl, R., P. Grossl, and B. Bugbee. 1999. Effect of 2(N-Morpholino)ethane Sulfonic Acid (MES) on the Growth and Tissue Composition of Cucumber. Jour. Plant Nutrition 22:315-330.
  • Bugbee, B., M. Droter, O. Monje, and B. Tanner. 1999. Evaluation and Modification of Commercial Infra-red Transducers for Leaf Temperature Measurement. Adv. In Space Res. 22:1425-1434.
  • Dougher, T. and B. Bugbee. 1998. Is Blue Light Good or Bad for Plants? Life Support and Biosphere Science. 5:129-136.
  • Bishop, D. and B. Bugbee. 1998. Photosynthetic Capacity and Dry Mass Partitioning in Dwarf and Semi-dwarf Wheat. Jour. Plant Physiology 153:558-565.
  • Smart, D., K. Ritchie, A. Bloom, and B. Bugbee. 1998. Nitrogen Balance for Wheat Canopies Grown under Elevated and Ambient CO2 Concentrations. Plant Cell Environ. 21:753-763.
  • Dougher, T. and B. Bugbee. 1998. Effect of Lamp Type and Temperature on Development, Carbon Partitioning, and Yield of soybean. Adv. Space Res. 5:129-136.
  • Grotenhuis, T., J. Reuveni, and B. Bugbee. 1998. Super-optimal CO2 Reduces Yield in Growth Chamber and Greenhouse Environments. Adv. Space Res. 20:1901-1904.
  • Monje, O. and B. Bugbee. 1998. Adaptation to High CO2 Concentration in an Optimal Environment: Radiation Capture, Canopy Quantum Yield, and Carbon Use Efficiency. Plant Cell Environ. 21:315-324.
  • Jurgonski, L., D. Smart, B. Bugbee, and S. Nielsen. 1998. Controlled Environments Alter Nutrient Content of Soybeans. Adv. Space Res. 20:1979-1988.
  • Bugbee, B. and G. Koerner. 1997. Yield Comparisons and Unique Characteristics of the Dwarf Wheat Cultivar AUSU-Apogee”. Adv. Space Res. 20:1891-1894.
  • Volk, T., B. Bugbee, and F. Tubiello. 1997. Phasic Temperature Control Appraised with the CERES-Wheat Model. Life Support & Biosphere Sci. 4:49-54.
  • Smart, D., K. Ritchie, J. Stark, and B. Bugbee. 1997. Evidence that Elevated CO2 Levels and Indirectly Increase Rhizosphere Denitrifier Activity. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 63:4621-4624.
  • Tubiello, F., T. Volk, and B. Bugbee. 1997. Diffuse Light and Wheat Radiation-Use Efficiency in a Controlled Environment. Life Support & Biosphere Sci. 4:77-85.
  • Grotenhuis, T. and B. Bugbee. 1997. Super-optimal CO2 reduces Seed Yield but not Vegetative Growth in Wheat. Crop Sci. 37:1215-1222.
  • Reuveni, J. and B. Bugbee. 1997. Very High CO2 Reduces Photosynthesis, Dark Respiration, and Yield in Wheat. Annals of Botany 80:539-546.
  • Ferro, A., J. Kennedy, W. Doucette, S. Nelson, G. Jauregi, B. McFarland, and B. Bugbee. 1997. Fate of Benzene in Soils Planted with Alfalfa: Uptake, Volatilization, and Degradation. Chapt. 16. pp 223-237. IN: Phytoremediation of Soil and Water Contaminants. E. Kruger, T. Anderson, and J. Coats (eds). Symposium Series 664. Amer. Chemical Soc. Washington, DC.
  • Bugbee, B., G. Koerner, R. Albrechtsen, W. Dewey, and S. Clawson. 1997. Registration of USU-Apogee Wheat. Crop Science 37:626.
  • van Iersel, M. and B. Bugbee. 1997. Increased Organic Matter in the Growing Medium Decreases Benlate DF Phytotoxicity. Plant Disease. 81:743-748.
  • van Iersel, M. and B. Bugbee. 1997. Dibutyl urea reduces photosynthesis and growth of Petunia and Impatiens. Jour. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 122:536-541.
  • Monje, O. And B. Bugbee. 1996. Characterizing Photosynthesis and Transpiration of Plant Communities in Controlled Environments. Acta Hort. ISHS 440:123-128.
  • Bugbee, B. 1996. Growth Analysis and Yield Components. In: Units, Symbols, and Terminology for Plant Physiology. F. Salisbury (ed.). Oxford University Press.
  • van Iersel, M. and B. Bugbee. 1996. Phytotoxic Effects of Benzimidazole Fungicides on Bedding Plants. Jour. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 121:1095-1102.
  • Smart, D., K. Ritchie, and B. Bugbee. 1996. Mass Transfer in the Biological Fast Lane: High CO2 and a Shallow Root-zone. Life Support and Biosphere Sci. 3:43-46.
  • Bugbee, B. O. Monje, and B. Tanner. 1996. Quantifying Energy and Mass Transfer in Crop Canopies. Advances in Space Research 18:149-156.
  • McKeehen, J. C. Mitchell, R. Wheeler, B. Bugbee, and S. Nielsen. 1996. Excess Nutrients in Hydroponic Solutions alter Nutrient content of Rice, Wheat, and Potato. Advances in Space Research. 18:73-83.
  • Bugbee, B. 1995. The Components of Crop Productivity: Measuring and Modeling Plant Metabolism. Am. Soc. of Gravitational and Space Biology. 8:93-104.
  • Smart, D., A. Ferro, K. Ritchie, and B. Bugbee. 1995. On the Use of Antibiotics to Reduce Rhizoplane Microbial Populations in Root Physiology and Ecology Investigations. Physiol. Plantarum 95:533-540.
  • Volk, T, R. Wheeler, and B. Bugbee. 1995. An Approach to Crop Modeling with the Energy Cascade. Life Support and Biosphere Science 1:119-127.
  • Bugbee, B. B. Spanarkel, S. Johnson, O. Monje, and G. Koerner. 1994. CO2 Crop Growth Enhancement and Toxicity in Wheat and Rice. Advances in Space Research 14:257-267.
  • Smart, D., J. Chatterton, and B. Bugbee. 1994. The influence of Elevated CO2 on Nonstructural Carbohydrate Distribution and Fructan Accumulation in Wheat. Plant, Cell, and Environment 17:435-442.
  • Ferro, A., R. Simms, and B. Bugbee. 1994. Hycrest Crested Wheatgrass accelerates the Degradation of Pentachlorophenol in Soil. Jour. Environmental Quality 23:272-279.
  • Barnes, C., T. Tibbitts, J. Sager, G. Deitzer, D. Bubenheim, G. Koerner, and B. Bugbee. 1993. Accuracy of Quantum Sensors Measuring Yield Photon Flux and Photosynthetic Photons Flux. HortScience 28:1197-1200.
  • Bugbee, B. and O. Monje. 1992. The Limits of Crop Productivity: Theory and Validation. BioScience 42:494-502.
  • Bugbee, B. 1992. Steady State Gas Exchange in Growth Chambers: System Design and Operation. HortScience 27:770-776.
  • Barnes, C. and B. Bugbee. 1992. Morphological Responses of Wheat to Blue Light. Jour. of Plant Physiol. 139:339-342.
  • Monje, O. and B. Bugbee. 1992. Inherent Limitations of Nondestructive Chlorophyll Meters: A Comparison of Two Types of Meters. HortScience 27:69-71.
  • Bugbee, B. 1991. Determining the Potential Productivity of Food Crops in Controlled Environments. Adv. Space Res. 12:85-95.
  • Volk, T. and B. Bugbee. 1991. Modeling Light and Temperature Effects on Leaf Emergence in Wheat and Barley. Crop Science 31:1218-1224.
  • Barnes, C. and B. Bugbee. 1991. Morphological Responses of Wheat to Changes in Phytochrome Photoequilibrium. Plant Physiol. 97:359-365.
  • Bugbee, B. and F.B. Salisbury. 1989. Current and Poten¬tial Productivity of Wheat for a Controlled Environment Life Support System. Advances in Space Research. 9:5-15.
  • Bugbee B. and F.B. Salisbury. 1988. Exploring the Limits of Crop Productivity: Photosynthetic Efficiency in High Irradiance Environments. Plant Physiol. 88:869-878.
  • Bubenheim, D.L., B. Bugbee and F.B. Salisbury. 1988. Radiation in Controlled Environments: Influence of lamp type and filter material. Jour. Am. Soc. of Hort. Sci. 113:468-474.
  • Salisbury, F.B., and B. Bugbee. 1988. Plant Productivity in Controlled Environments. Symposium on Plant Productivity in Space. HortSci. 23:293-299.
  • Salisbury, F.B., B. Bugbee, and D. Bubenheim. 1987. Wheat Production in Controlled Environments. Advances in Space Research 7:123-132.
  • Bugbee, B. and F.B. Salisbury. 1985. An Evaluation of MES (2(N-Mor-pholino)ethanesulfonic Acid) and Amberlite IRC-50 as pH Buffers for Nutrient Solution Studies. J. Plant Nutr. 8:567-583.
  • Bugbee, B. and J.W. White. 1984. Tomato Growth as Affected by Root-zone Temperatures and the Addition of Gibberellic Acid and Kinetin to Nutrient Solutions. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 109:121-125.